# Adding Support for normal maps

As discussed in previous post when adding diffuse lighting, we defined normals as the vectors perpendicular to the triangle drawn. We have also discussed how we can have multiple types of textures apart from the color textures. So, normal maps are a type of texture that are used to store normal values instead of the usual color values in the RGB channels. These normal maps are used to give a surface higher details by faking bumbs or raises on the surface.

While building normal maps as textures, we need to make sure that we are not building them as SRGB, since the data in the texture is not color. Then we can add the normal map to our material data. Below is the way i am storing it in our human readable material file

```return
{
Material =
{
EffectLocation = "Effects/Effect1.effect",
ConstantType = "float4",
ConstantName = "Color",
ConstantValue = {1,1,1,1},
TextureLocation = "Textures/earth.jpg",
NormalMapLocation = "Textures/earth_normal.jpg",
},
}
```

Firstly, we need to change our mesh importer from maya to import tangents and bitangents which we pass onto the shader. In the shader, first we need to map the XYZ co-ordinates from [0,1] to [-1,1] . We do that using (2*value)-1. After we finish mapping, we create a TBN (Tangent,Bitangent, Normal) matrix, that we use to calculate the final normal to be used which is:

float3x3(
tangent.x, bitangent.x, normal.x,
tangent.y, bitangent.y, normal.y,
tangent.z, bitangent.z, normal.z
);

Finally, we multiply the incoming normal with this matrix and use the resulting normal in the places where we usually use our normals.

Below we can see the normal map working. The first is a test normal map. You can see letters “RAISEN” as raised and “SUNKEN” to appear low. This normal map was given by our professor, but i had to invert the green channel it to make it work in my engine, the resulting normal map looks like the following.

I’ve created a normal map from a low resolution QR code image i had. The resulting nomal map looks the following and you can see it in action below.

Update:  Changed the QR code to another texture because of the low resolution. Below you can see the updated video

And another example is the earth texture. You can see mountain ranges as we rotate the globe. I couldn’t find the source website, so linking here for download. The source was free to download and distribute.